Morgan, G.M. (2006). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Less effective mangers and problem solvers interpret everything form a fixed standpoint. As a result the frequently hit blocks they cannot get around; their actions and behaviors are often rigid and inflexible.
Effective mangers and professionals in all walks of life have to become skilled in the art of reading the situations they are attempting to organize or manage. The skill usually develops an intuitive process, learned through experience and natural ability. Effective managers have the ability to develop deep appreciation of the situation being addressed. They have the ability to remain open and flexible, suspending immediate judgments whenever possible, until a more comprehensive view of a situation emerges. (Morgan, 2006)