Ozmon, H. A. & Craver, S. M. (2008). Philosophical foundations of education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) studied the nature of ideas and the need to test them by experience. According to Ozmon & Craver (2008), Peirce concluded that true knowledge of anything depends on testing one’s ideas in actual experience because, in and of themselves, ideas are little more than hypotheses until tried upon the anvil of experience.